In 1994, when Holly Ann Collins kidnapped her children, she violated the following laws of the United States of America. The penalty for this horrible crime against her own children is 2 to 4 years in a federal or state prison.
1) International Parental Kidnapping Crime Act of 1993.
"Sec. 1204. International parental kidnapping
"(a) Whoever removes a child from the United States or
retains a child (who has been in the United States) outside the
United States with intent to obstruct the lawful exercise of
parental rights shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not
more than 3 years, or both.
"(b) As used in this Section --
"(1) the term 'child' means a person who has not attained
the age of 16 years: and
"(2) the term 'parental rights', with respect to a child,
means the right to physical custody of the child --
"(A) whether joint or sole (and includes visiting rights);
"(B) whether arising by operation of law, court order, or
legally binding agreement of the parties.
"(c) It shall be an affirmative defense under this
section that --
"(l) the defendant acted within the provisions of a valid
Court order granting the defendant legal custody or visitation
rights and that order was obtained pursuant to the Uniform Child
Custody Jurisdiction Act and was in effect at the time of the
"(2) the defendant was fleeing an incidence or pattern oœ
"(3) the defendant had physical custody of the child
pursuant to a court order granting legal custody or visitation
rights and failed to return the child as a result of
circumstances beyond the defendant's control, and the defendant
notified or made reasonable attempts to notify the other parent
or lawful custodian of the child of such circumstances within 24
hours after the visitation period had expired and returned the
child as soon as possible.
2) 2007 Minnesota Statutes
609.26 DEPRIVING ANOTHER OF CUSTODIAL OR PARENTAL RIGHTS.
Subdivision 1. Prohibited acts. Whoever intentionally does any of the following acts may
be charged with a felony and, upon conviction, may be sentenced as provided in subdivision 6:
(1) conceals a minor child from the child's parent where the action manifests an intent
substantially to deprive that parent of parental rights or conceals a minor child from another
person having the right to parenting time or custody where the action manifests an intent to
substantially deprive that person of rights to parenting time or custody;
(2) takes, obtains, retains, or fails to return a minor child in violation of a court order which
has transferred legal custody under chapter 260, 260B, or 260C to the commissioner of human
services, a child-placing agency, or the local social services agency;
(3) takes, obtains, retains, or fails to return a minor child from or to the parent in violation of
a court order, where the action manifests an intent substantially to deprive that parent of rights toparenting time or custody;
(4) takes, obtains, retains, or fails to return a minor child from or to a parent after
commencement of an action relating to child parenting time or custody but prior to the issuance
of an order determining custody or parenting time rights, where the action manifests an intent
substantially to deprive that parent of parental rights;
(5) retains a child in this state with the knowledge that the child was removed from another
state in violation of any of the above provisions;
(6) refuses to return a minor child to a parent or lawful custodian and is at least 18 years old
and more than 24 months older than the child;
(7) causes or contributes to a child being a habitual truant as defined in section 260C.007,
subdivision 19 , and is at least 18 years old and more than 24 months older than the child;
(8) causes or contributes to a child being a runaway as defined in section 260C.007,
subdivision 28 , and is at least 18 years old and more than 24 months older than the child; or
(9) is at least 18 years old and resides with a minor under the age of 16 without the consent
of the minor's parent or lawful custodian.
Subd. 2. Defenses. It is an affirmative defense if a person charged under subdivision 1
(1) the person reasonably believed the action taken was necessary to protect the child from
physical or sexual assault or substantial emotional harm;
(2) the person reasonably believed the action taken was necessary to protect the person
taking the action from physical or sexual assault;
(3) the action taken is consented to by the parent, stepparent, or legal custodian seeking
prosecution, but consent to custody or specific parenting time is not consent to the action of
failing to return or concealing a minor child; or
(4) the action taken is otherwise authorized by a court order issued prior to the violation of
The defenses provided in this subdivision are in addition to and do not limit other defenses
available under this chapter or chapter 611.
Subd. 2a. Original intent clarified. To the extent that it states that subdivision 2 creates
affirmative defenses to a charge under this section, subdivision 2 clarifies the original intent of the legislature in enacting Laws 1984, chapter 484, section 2, and does not change the substance of this section. Subdivision 2 does not modify or alter any convictions entered under this section
before August 1, 1988.
Subd. 3. Venue. A person who violates this section may be prosecuted and tried either
in the county in which the child was taken, concealed, or detained or in the county of lawful
residence of the child.
Subd. 4. Return of child; costs. A child who has been concealed, obtained, or retained in
violation of this section shall be returned to the person having lawful custody of the child or shall
be taken into custody pursuant to section 260C.175, subdivision 1, paragraph (b), clause (2). In
addition to any sentence imposed, the court may assess any expense incurred in returning the
child against any person convicted of violating this section. The court may direct the appropriate
county welfare agency to provide counseling services to a child who has been returned pursuant
to this subdivision.
Subd. 5. Dismissal of charge. A felony charge brought under this section shall be dismissed
(a) the person voluntarily returns the child within 48 hours after taking, detaining, or failing
to return the child in violation of this section; or
(b)(1) the person taking the action and the child have not left the state of Minnesota; and (2)
within a period of seven days after taking the action, (i) a motion or proceeding under chapter
518, 518A, 518B, 518C, or 518D is commenced by the person taking the action, or (ii) the
attorney representing the person taking the action has consented to service of process by the
party whose rights are being deprived, for any motion or action pursuant to chapter 518, 518A,
518B, 518C, or 518D.
Clause (a) does not apply if the person returns the child as a result of being located by
law enforcement authorities.
This subdivision does not prohibit the filing of felony charges or an offense report before the
expiration of the 48 hours.
Subd. 6. Penalty. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) and subdivision 5,
whoever violates this section may be sentenced as follows:
(1) to imprisonment for not more than two years or to payment of a fine of not more than
$4,000, or both; or
(2) to imprisonment for not more than four years or to payment of a fine of not more than
$8,000, or both, if the court finds that:
(i) the defendant committed the violation while possessing a dangerous weapon or caused
substantial bodily harm to effect the taking;
(ii) the defendant abused or neglected the child during the concealment, detention, or
removal of the child;
(iii) the defendant inflicted or threatened to inflict physical harm on a parent or lawful
custodian of the child or on the child with intent to cause the parent or lawful custodian to
discontinue criminal prosecution;
(iv) the defendant demanded payment in exchange for return of the child or demanded
to be relieved of the financial or legal obligation to support the child in exchange for return
of the child; or
(v) the defendant has previously been convicted under this section or a similar statute of
(b) A violation of subdivision 1, clause (7), is a gross misdemeanor. The county attorney
shall prosecute violations of subdivision 1, clause (7).
Subd. 7. Reporting of deprivation of parental rights. Any violation of this section shall be reported pursuant to section 626.556, subdivision 3a.